Sunday, June 28, 2020

The United States, Japan and China Difference In Approaches To Managing People - Free Essay Example

For the United States, Japan and China evaluate how approaches to managing people differ and how these differences can be explained by cultural context. Date authored: 26 th May, 2014 Introduction In this international age of business where firms operate in many different parts of the globe, it is important to note that approaches to management may differ across cultures. In setting up a new office in, for example, China or Japan, potential managers should seek to adapt to the different cultural practices of the host country in order to better manage their workforce and achieve productivity. In this essay, we shall, firstly, discuss methods of measuring key dimensions of culture, and then using said dimensions, look at the different management styles between three countries; China, Japan and the US, currently the three largest economies in terms of GDP, and seek to determine how each approach is shaped by the unique cultural contexts of each country. Measuring Key Dimensions of Culture In order to measure the potential effects of culture on the behaviour of said cultures firms and managers, Geert Hofstede (2001), while working for IBM in the late 70s and early 80s, identified six key dimensions of culture that could be measured through use of survey data and indexed values, namely; Time Orientation (Long Term vs Short Term); a measure of the extent to which each society values history, heritage and tradition whether it prefers to uphold traditional values and is more resistant to new ideas and technology (Long Term Orientation) or whether it is more fluid, less focussed on the past and more open to change (Short Term Orientation); Power Distance (High vs Low), which measures how well the society in question handles uneven distributions of power; whether it is generally accepted and understood as a fact of life (high power distance) or whether it is held to be deeply unfair, unnatural, and something to be railed against (low power distance); Individ ualism vs Collectivism; a measure of the extent to which a sense of community and collective responsibility exists, and whether it is thought to be more important than individualist beliefs and desires. Individualist societies tend to value independence, privacy and personal fulfilment, while collectivist societies tend to value group interdependence and a repression of personal ambition when it is misaligned with communal values; Uncertainty Avoidance (Weak vs Strong), which measures the extent to which each society is comfortable dealing with risk, uncertainty and ambiguity –societies with high degrees of uncertainty avoidance tend to be highly regulated and value careful planning and structure, while societies with low degrees of uncertainty avoidance tend to be more pragmatic, and accept change and risk as factors of life; Masculinity vs Femininity; a measure of societal gender differentiation – in ‘masculine cultures, gender roles are highly differ entiated and society as a whole places higher values on competition, ambition, and personal achievement whereas in ‘feminine societies gender roles are less starkly defined and more equal, and society tends to place higher values on relationship building, modesty and group harmony (Hofstede and Minkov, 2010). The US American society traditionally has a tendency to value individualism and personal freedoms – indeed, such ideals can be seen in the idea of ‘The American Dream, which postulates that anyone can achieve great wealth and success through individual hard work and determination. With regard to the Hofstede (2001) dimensions of cultural influence; Source: Gallant (2013) The United States scores low on the measure of Power Distance, suggesting that American culture is generally intolerant of uneven distributions of power and prefers to see all men as equal (as is laid out in the American Declaration of Independence). It also scores low on Time Orientation, suggesting US society prefers to embrace change and adapt to new ideas rather than sticking to more traditional approaches. It scores quite highly on Masculinity vs Femininity, which is perhaps a reflection of the traditional American respect for competition and ambition. Unsurprisingly, it scores very highly in the measure of Individualism vs Collectivism, a reflection of the deeply held belief in individual freedoms and independence which has been a mainstay of American culture since the war of independence. This strong sense of individualism is reflected in the American approach to management. Generally, American managers are expected to deal with employees as individuals, rather than as a collective – the ‘open door approach to management, where employees are free to approach and discuss issues, suggestions and ideas with upper management, is a uniquely American approach to management that has gained traction in other parts of the world (Laurent, 2006) as it allows employees to feel that their ideas and opinions are valued by those higher up the corporate ladder. American managers are often viewed as facilitators, helping employees to develop personal talents and understanding the individual strengths and weaknesses of those they oversee (Lewis, 2000). Indeed, many American employers use psychometric tests in their hiring process, to determine an applicants individual skill level and expected role within the team (Jenkins, 2001). Indeed, skill-based human resource management theories and practices have quickly gained traction in many American firms (Lawler, 1992), reflecting the US cultural practice of embracing new ideas and valuing individu al contributions. There is also a strong sense of competition prevalent in the American approach to management, with promotions tending to go to those who have been seen to ‘rise above the rest, rather than merely to those who have had the longest tenure (Morris and Pinnington, 2012). The study by Morris and Pinnington (2012) shows that many US manufacturing firms (around a third of those studied, including several of the largest) have an â€Å"up-or-out† approach to employee promotion, whereby if an employee has not risen to the next level of the career ladder by a specified time, they are asked to leave the firm. A study by Gibbons and Waldman (1999) shows that workers in US firms who receive promotions early in their career tend to then be promoted quickly to the next level again, suggesting that individual achievement and ambition is both recognised and rewarded. China Chinese society is highly influenced by the teachings of Confucius, where all relationships are seen as inherently unequal; both elders and superiors are to be automatically given the utmost respect, and where the group is held to be far more important than the individual (Yum, 2009). This emphasis on group cohesion over individual freedoms was further influenced by the advent of Chinese communism in 1949, and the formation of the Peoples Republic of China. While China has become decidedly less socialist economically over the past two decades, owing mainly to Deng Xiaopings economic reforms of 1978 and 1992, it still remains a communist country, and its socialist ideology is still highly prevalent in everyday life (Yum, 2009) With regard to the Hofstede (2001) dimensions of cultural influence; Source: Gallant (2013) China scores highly on the measure of Power Distance, reflecting the fact that Chinese society inherently accepts uneven power distribution and inequality as a fact of life. Unsurprisingly, China scores very low on the measure of Individualism vs Collectivism, given both the Confucianist and the ruling Communist Partys emphasis on obedience to the state and group cohesion. It scores relatively highly on the measure of Masculinity vs Femininity, suggesting that gender roles are fairly strictly defined, and that ambition and assertiveness are valued, although mainly when they are used for the benefit of the group/state. China scores very highly on Time Orientation, suggesting that Chinese culture is very traditional and conservative, placing great emphasis on traditional values and methods. They also score very low on Uncertainty Avoidance, suggesting that Chinese society generally does not tolerate uncertainty, and prefers rules and strict structures to be in place. This ca n be seen in the fact that Chinese organisations tend to be highly structured and hierarchical, with each individual having a strict distinct role within the organisation (Lewis, 2000). Chinese managers tend to be very autocratic, and most decision-making is made from the top-down with little consultation (Gallant, 2013). Chinese decision making tends to be highly directive, task-oriented and low in cognitive complexity, with little room for interpretation (Martinson and Davison, 2005). Senior managers often have close ties to the Communist Party, and often important business decisions – especially those related to international trade – are scrutinised by party officials before being made (Osland, 1990). Chinese society emphasises the need for social cohesion, and the avoidance of conflict. Lockett (1988) suggests that the Chinese approach to management is much more people and relationship-oriented, and less performance-driven than in the West. When it comes to promotion, managers tend to promote those who are seen to be trustworthy and reliable rather than those who have sought to ‘rise above the rest at the expense of others (which is seen to be harmful to group cohesion), and length of tenure is also a highly important factor in determining promotion prospects (Ding et al, 1997). Japan Japanese society in general emphasises politeness and modesty as key virtues to be upheld – in a country with one of the highest urban population densities in the world, such virtues are important in maintaining social cohesion (Clammer, 2011). Japan was essentially closed to the outside world, apart from occasional contact with Dutch traders, until 1854, when the US Navy forced it to open its borders to trade (Totman, 2005). Since then, it has established itself as the third largest economy in the world in terms of GDP, behind the US and China at first and second place, respectively. With regard to the Hofstede dimensions of cultural influence; Source: Gallant (2013) Japan scores low on the measure of Individualism vs Collectivism, suggesting that Japanese society values group cohesion and social relationships over individual desires and accomplishments. Japan scores very highly on the measure of Masculinity vs Femininity, suggesting a high emphasis on fixed gender roles and on competition. It also scores very highly on Uncertainty Avoidance suggesting a high importance placed on the value of structure and rule formation, which can be interpreted as a holdover of its imperial past and its emphasis on a strict social hierarchy (Benedict, 1967). This is unsurprising given the high score for the measure of Time Orientation, which demonstrates Japanese culture is generally rather traditionalist and conservative. Although Japan scores low on the measure of individualism, Japanese managers tend to invest a great deal in their employees skills and development – in many Japanese firms, new employees spend around six to twelve months in t raining in each division of the company, so they can understand the different aspects of the firms organisation (Gallant, 2013). This ties in to the Japanese emphasis on structure and collectivism – each employee knows their role, and understands the role others play in the firms activities. Japanese decision making tends to be very collaborative – the Japanese concept of ‘hourenshou captures this perfectly. It refers to the necessity of reporting on both your own work and that of others, in ensuring everyone involved in the process is kept informed on how each piece of work is progressing (Clammer, 2011). Often, decisions are made at the middle management level, after consulting with subordinates, and are then passed up the chain to upper-level management to implement. Top management is seen as more of a facilitator than as a strictly authoritarian body. This idea of group responsibility is also upheld in the Japanese concept of ‘genchi genbutsu whi ch translates roughly as the need to get ones hands dirty when one spots a problem, regardless of role or level. Thus, top-level management are often willing to pitch in on a project to help it succeed, even if said project is many levels below (Clammer, 2011). The Japanese approach to promotion emphasises both seniority, maintenance of group cohesion, and modesty – the higher a manager rises, the more modest and unassuming he needs to appear (Suzuki, 1986). In Japan, it is generally expected for an employee to spend his working life at one company, slowly developing their individual skills and moving up the ranks, reflecting both the Japanese cultural preference for strong structure and organisation and avoidance of ambiguity, and in Japanese societys preferred long-term approach to Time Orientation. Conclusion While links can be drawn between each countrys unique cultural dimensions and its approach to management, care should be taken when applying such knowledge. As with any sweeping generalisations, there are many exceptions to the rule. However, such generalisations can still be useful as Lewis (2000) notes, â€Å"Determining national characteristics is treading a minefield of inaccurate assessment and surprising exception†¦there is, however, such a thing as a national norm† (Lewis, 2000, p3). So while not every Japanese manager will be modest, self-effacing and open to collaborative decision making; or every Chinese manager autocratic and avoiding of conflict; or every American manager highly competitive and performance-focused; such archetypes are generally successful in each area of cultural context, and the conscientiousness manager would do well to keep these national differences in mind while dealing with one of the aforementioned nations. References Benedict, R (1967), The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston Clammer, J (2011), Contemporary Urban Japan, John Wiley and Sons, Oxford Ding, D, Fields, D and Akhtar, S (1997), ‘An empirical study of human resource management policies and practices in foreign-invested enterprises in China: the case of Shenzen Special Economic Zone, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Volume 8, Issue 5, pg 595-613 Gallant, M (2013), The Business of Culture: How Culture Affects Management Around the World [Online], Available; https://www.halogensoftware.com/blog/the-business-of-culture-how-culture-affects-management-around-the-world [Accessed 21st May 2014] Gibbons, R and Waldman, M (1999), ‘A Theory of Wage and Promotion Dynamics Inside Firms, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Volume 144, Issue 4, pg 1321-1358 Hofstede, G (2001), Cultures Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institut ions and Organisations across Nations, SAGE Publications, New York Hofstede, G and Minkov, M (2010), Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, McGraw-Hill, New York Jenkins, A (2001), Companies Use of Psychometric Testing and the Changing Demand for Skills: A Review of the Literature, [Online], Available; https://eprints.lse.ac.uk/19541/1/Companies_use_of_psychometric_testing_and_the_changing_demand_for_skills_A_review_of_the_literature.pdf [Accessed 21st May 2014] Laurent, A (2006), ‘The Cross-Cultural Puzzle of International Human Resource Management, Human Resource Management, Volume 25, Issue 1, pg 91-102 Lawler, E (1992), ‘A Skill-Based Approach to Human Resource Management, European Management Journal, Volume 10, Issue 4, pg 383-391 Lewis, R (2000), When Cultures Collide: Managing Successfully Across Cultures, Nicholas Brealey Publishing, London Lockett, M (1988), ‘Culture and the Problems of Chinese Management, Organisation Studies, Volume 914, pg 475 496 Martinson, M and Davison, R (2005), ‘Strategic decision making and support systems: Comparing American, Japanese and Chinese management, Decision Support Systems, Volume 43, pg 284 300 Morris, T and Pinnington, A (2012), ‘Promotion to Partner in Professional Service Firms, Human Relations, Volume 51, January, pg 3-24 Osland, G (1990), ‘Doing Business in China: A Framework for Cross-cultural Understanding, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, Volume 8, Issue 4, pg 4-14 Suzuki, N (1986), ‘Mid-Career Crisis in Japanese Business Organisations, Journal of Management Development, Volume 5, issue 5, pg 23-32 Totman, C (2005), A History of Japan, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford Yum, J (2009), The impact of Confucianism on interpersonal relationships and communication patterns in east Asia, [Online], Available; https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03637758809376178#.U4Aw33JdXHQ [Accessed 21st May 2014]

Tuesday, June 2, 2020

A Psychoanalysis of Edgar Allan Poe’s “Ligeia” and “The Fall of the House of Usher” - Literature Essay Samples

Often, the elements of the mind and past developments play a key role in understanding events and writings. In Edgar Allan Poe’s short stories â€Å"Ligeia† and â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher,† Poe crafts tales that reveal the inner cravings that motivate action and perception. In â€Å"Ligeia,† Poe orchestrates his story to comment on his own family history as well as to demonstrate the intricate elements of a mother to child relationship. His themes of love and obsession suggest an Oedipus complex in his narrator which creates a further convoluted story that demonstrates the complexity of family. Additionally, Poe’s three characters in â€Å"The Fall of the House of the Usher† represent the three elements of the human mind: the id, ego, and superego. This demonstration of psychoanalytic motivation explains the functions of the mind and suggests the strength of desire. Edgar Allan Poe led a tumultuous life filled with loss. At a very young age Poe lost his mother, and while still in his youth, Poe’s foster mother died. This tragic life lead Poe to have a strong craving for motherly love which can be seen in his literary works (Jones 446). In Edgar Allan Poe’s â€Å"Ligeia,† Poe creates a form of the Oedipus complex between the narrator and his wives. Although the story does not involve a mother and son relationship, Poe creates a mother-and-child-like relationship between the narrator and both his wives. Poe uses themes of obsessions and jouvenial word repetition in reference to the narrator to emphasize the women’s roles as motherly figures. Through the characterization of Ligeia and Rowena, Poe depicts a loving, interesting mother and an uninvolved, careless mother. This dynamic stems from Poe’s unresolved difficulties with his own parents and implies the complexity of the relationship between a mother and son. Throughout the story the narrator assignes himself childlike qualities asserting his role as the child in his and his wife’s relationship. When talking about Ligeias vast knowledge he explains that, â€Å"[I] resign myself, with a child-like confidence, to her guidance† (Poe 8). This is a very common feeling of trust for a child to have towards their mother, but does not depict the traditional standings of a husband and wife. Later, after Ligeias death, the narrator admits that, â€Å"Without Ligeia I was but as a child groping benighted† (Poe 12). The speaker explains his complete dependence upon Ligeia just as a child must completely depend on its mother to sustain its life. The narrator continues, stating again that he â€Å"gave way, with a child-like perversity†(Poe 13) This repetition of the word child in reference to the narrator portrays the dynamic of the relationship and implies that the narrator relates to his wife the way a child relates to hi s mother. The narrator is dependent on Ligeia and needs her guidance. The speaker expresses feelings of obsessions and clinginess towards the motherly figure, which Freud explains as the beginning steps of the Oedipus complex. When describing Ligeia, the narrator uses words such as â€Å"majesty,† unequalled beauty, and â€Å"spirit lifting vision† (Poe 3). These words reflect strong adoration and suggest that the narrator views Ligeia as somewhat divine. This description closely aligns with Freud’s view of how children view their parents. A child sees its mother with unwavering love and supernatural qualities. The narrator associates himself with youthful language and respects Ligeia as a child would a mother asserting his role and emphasizing Poe’s allusion to the complexity of family dynamic. An additional element that suggests the narrator and his wife’s relationship represents a mother to son relationship is found in the first line of the text . The speaker admits that â€Å"I cannot, for my soul, remember how, when, or even precisely where, I first became acquainted with the lady Ligeia† (Poe 2). This is a very odd sentiment to express about a wife, yet a very natural relationship to have with a mother. Individuals can not recount the moment they met their mother, yet nearly everyone has a meaningful story that describes meeting their significant other. This oddity suggests that a traditional relationship does not exist between the narrator and his wife but rather one of maternal influence.Once establishing this relationship, it is clear that Ligeia represents a preferable mother while Rowena represents negligence. When describing Ligeia, the narrator spends paragraphs praising every feature of Ligeia, but when referring to Rowena, the speaker explains â€Å"that she shunned me and loved me but little† (Poe 21). This dynamic strongly references Poe’s relationship with his foster mother. Lorine Pruett e, writer in A Psycho-Analytical Study of Edgar Allan Poe expresses that, â€Å"[Poe’s] foster mother provided his wants but seemed in no way to have satisfied his passionate desire for love and approval† (Pruette 378). Poe grew up yearning for the relationship an approval of a caring mother and projects these feelings of inadequacy and abandonment into his writing. Using characterization, Poe demonstrates feelings of obsessive love as well as feelings of neglect which alludes to Poe’s own feelings about the motherly figures of his childhood. Poe expresses a confused view of maternal relationships playing into Freud’s beliefs about children having feelings of love, jealousy, and obsession towards their mothers. Just as the character’s actions and feelings in â€Å"Ligeia† draw upon the functions of the human mind and instinct as explained by Freud, the motivations of the character in Poe’s â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† can be explained by Freud’s belief that the mind is made up of the id, ego and superego. The narrator, upon approaching the house explains that, â€Å"with the first glimpse of the building, a sense of insufferable gloom pervaded my spirit† (Poe 3). This house represents its tenants, and the narrator’s aversion to the dark, gloomy house is based in the fact that the narrator embodies opposing qualities such as goodness and morality. This characterization implies that the narrator is the superego and symbolizes the unconscious part of the brain which psychologists describes as the â€Å"system within the total psyche developed†¦ by incorporating moral standards of society† (Strunk 318). The narrator represents societal rules established about goodness and opposes selfish desires. The juxtaposing element of the unconscious mind is the id which is defined as,â€Å"the division of the psyche from which blind, impersonal, instinctual impulses that lead t o immediate gratification of primitive needs† (Strunk 317). This portion of the mind is represented by Madeline and represents instinctual, selfish desires. Although her physical character is seen in the story very little, the malignant effect Madeline has had on her brother, Roderick, is very evident throughout the entirety of the tale. Roderick is the owner of the house and represents the ego or conscious part of the mind. The ego regulates between the id and superego, balancing innate desires with social morality. In Poe’s â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher,† Poe constructs a story where the id has taken control of the ego leading to complete demise. Roderick represents an individual whose id has dominated his superego. At the beginning of the story, the narrator of the tale and superego, has received a letter of, â€Å"wildly importunate nature† that expressed Roderick’s sickness and, â€Å"earnest desire to see† the narrator in person (Poe 4). This implies that Roderick has been overwhelmed by his id and is now slipping into sickness and defeat. In an effort to create balance and save himself, Roderick invites the narrator to compensate for the effects of Madeline. Once the narrator reaches the house, Roderick explains, â€Å"that much of the peculiar gloom which thus afflicted him could be traced to†¦ [his] tenderly beloved sister† (Poe 10). This further portrays that Roderick’s id is represented by his sister, Madeline, who has caused Roderick’s sickly condition. As the story continues, Madeline dies and Roderick and the narrator place the body in a vault (Poe 17). This action symbolizes Roderick’s attempt to rid himself of the id and escape it’s desires. Roderick locks his id away in a natural effort to resist the powers of human desire. In the end, the ego is unable to avoid the id’s grasp on desire which is represented by Madeleine’s grasp on Roderickâ₠¬â„¢s physical body. Madeline breaks out of her vault, alive, and rushes to Roderick. Madeline collapses and dies causing Roderick to also collapse and die of fright (Poe 25). Madeline is the cause of Rodericks sickness and eventual death representing the id’s ability to take over and destroy the mind. Roderick is unable to elude his innate desires and this kills him. He attempts to compensate by reacquainting himself with his superego but it is too late and Roderick is overcome. Poe assigns overwhelming strength to the darker aspects of the mind and suggests that the id is unable to be buried or resisted by the ego.Both â€Å"Ligeia† and â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† as well as many more of Poe’s short stories, center around themes of death and regeneration. These themes derive not only from the death of Poe’s mother and foster mother, but the writer also survived the deaths of his friend Jane Stith Stanard and his wife Virginia Clemm. Poe himself wrote, â€Å"I could not love except where Death / was mingling his with Beauty’s breath.† (Jones 446) This considerable loss inevitably played an emotional role in Poe’s writings. Freud explains that part of human’s death instinct is a need to express aggression revolving around the emotions of death. This expression can generally take place internally in the form of self-sabotage or externally in the form of violence towards others. Poe demonstrated various forms of aggression towards himself and others throughout his life, but his writing is another form of processing the death instinct detailed by Freud. Despite this preoccupation with death, frequently Poe’s writings about demise are intermixed with some sort of rebirth of life. Pruette explains that this repetition of story theme in Poe’s writing alludes to the idea that Poe believed â€Å"that the dead are not wholly dead to consciousness† (Pruette 378) This can be see n in Ligeia’s take over of Rowena as well as in Madeline’s escape from the vault. In both these cases, character are able to achieve a type of life after death questioning the finality of death. This notion is supported in Freud’s belief that in â€Å"our unconscious we are immortal.† Both these suggestions made by Freud and Poe imply that there is more to the mind than life and death and explain themes of life returning after death in Poe’s work. In Edgar Allan Poe’s â€Å"Ligeia† and â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher,† elements of the mind are displayed through characterization. In â€Å"Ligeia† Poe expresses the complicated relationship between mother and child and projects his own feelings of discontentment towards the motherly figures of his life upon the character. Similarly, â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† explores mental elements such as the id, ego and superego portraying the role and strength of each. In both of these works, Poe explores themes of love, life, and death suggesting the complexity of each and illustrating that all are key constructs of the conscious and unconscious mind. Works Cited Freud, Sigmund. â€Å"Our Attitude Towards Death.† II. Our Attitude Towards Death. SigmundFreud. 1918. Reflections on War and Death, 0ADAD, www.bartleby.com/282/2.html.Jones, Llewellyn. â€Å"Psychoanalysis and Creative Literature.† The English Journal, vol. 23, no. 6,1934, pp. 443–452. JSTOR, JSTOR.Pruette, Lorine. â€Å"A Psycho-Analytical Study of Edgar Allan Poe.† The American Journal ofPsychology, vol. 31, no. 4, 1920, pp. 370–402. JSTOR, JSTOR.Poe, Edgar Allan. Ligeia. Generic NL Freebook Publisher, n.d. EBSCOhost.Poe, Edgar Allan. Fall of the House of Usher. Generic NL Freebook Publisher, n.d. EBSCOhost.Strunk, Orlo. â€Å"Religion, the Id, and the Superego.† Journal of Bible and Religion, vol. 28, no. 3,1960, pp. 317–322. JSTOR, JSTOR.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Industrial Revolution Essay - 635 Words

The Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution, the shift, at different times in different countries, from a traditional agriculturally based economy to one based on the mechanized production of manufactured goods in large-scale enterprises. The British Experience: The first Industrial Revolution occurred in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century; it profoundly altered Britains economy and society. The most immediate changes were in the nature of production: what was produced, as well as where and how. Labor was transferred from the production of primary products to the production of manufactured goods and services. Far more manufactured goods were produced than ever before, and technical efficiency rose dramatically. In part,†¦show more content†¦New social and vocational classes emerged that were distinguished from workers by virtue of their ownership or control of the physical means of production. The members of these new classes came to be known as capitalists. Because the first Industrial Revolution occurred in Great Britain, that country became for a time the workshop of the world. For much of the 18th century, London had been at the center of a complex world trade network that became the basis for the growing export trade associated with industrialization. The export market provided an indispensable outlet for the products of the textile and other industries, where the introduction of new techniques led to a rapid expansion of output. The available data suggest that the growth rate of British exports accelerated remarkably after 1780. The export orientation of the expanding trades conferred additional benefits on the growing economy: Export revenues provided British producers purchasing power to import raw materials used in industrial production, and merchants engaged in the export trade acquired skills that proved to be of great value in promoting domestic commerce. The Spread of Industrialized Britain did not long remain the only count ry to experience an Industrial Revolution. Attempts to specify dates for the Industrial Revolution in other countries are controversial and not particularly rewarding. Nonetheless, scholars generally agree that the Industrial Revolution occurredShow MoreRelatedIndustrial Of The Industrial Revolution1666 Words   |  7 PagesMartinez English IV, 1st hour 4/29/16 The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution set people away from farms and small villages and moved them to cities and towns because of the job opportunities that arose in the cities. The Industrial Revolution not only helped people move along in the late 1700s and early 1800s but also it has made the people what they are today. 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The process of industrialization began to take place in America, and eventually took over the economy during this period. Entrepreneurs and inventors put together various machines and businesses to help better the country function on aRead MoreThe Industrial Revolution Essay2099 Words   |  9 PagesThe Industrial Revolution was one of the largest social and cultural movements that changed the methods of manufacturing of metal and textiles, the transportation system, economic policies and social structure as well. Before the Industrial Revolution, people used to live by season due to agriculture. They thrived on whatever food was in season. Now, as a result of the Industrial Revolution, we live regimented and almost everything that is made, is mass produced. I will discuss three major topics

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Chlorine Is The Single Largest Contributor For Safe...

INTRODUCTION Chlorine is the single largest contributor to safe drinking water, in the history of public health. In 1902 the first chlorine disinfection system was installed in Belgium. By the 1920’s nearly the whole world started using the process. Due to this disinfection process many disease-causing microorganisms were abolished. According to Life Magazine (1997) â€Å"The filtration of drinking water plus the use of chlorine is probably the most significant public health advancement of the millennium† As consumers have started to have greater knowledge, they want to know what they’re drinking and how this will affect them in short-term and long-term. The main concern related to chlorination is the by-products produced. The by-products are said to be cancer causing. CHEMICAL BACKGROUND Chlorination is used in most Australian capital cities and small water supplies as it is inexpensive, easy to use and protects water within the pipe system. Treating drinking water involves two processes; the physical removal and the chemical disinfection. The traditional seven step water processes used around the globe is Coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, fluoridation and the storage distribution. (Refer to figure 1) The main focus for this report is the disinfection section. During the disinfection process different chlorine products are added to the filtered water to remove harmful microorganisms. When the disinfectant is added â€Å"freeShow MoreRelatedClean and Green7078 Words   |  29 Pageshave pets and/or small children that you opt for plants that are not poisonous. Never flush your old medications. In almost everyone’s medicine cabinet there is expired medications. But whatever you do, do not flush them! That puts them into the water, which can be dangerous. Instead inquire at your pharmacy about whether they will take them and dispose of them properly. If they cannot handle them they will at least be able to tell you where you can take them. Don’t waste heat when the fireplaceRead MoreSexually Transmitted Diseases35655 Words   |  143 PagesScience For Living Notes (Compiled) Table of Contents Unit 1 Measurement 5-10 Unit 2 Matter 11-48 Unit 3 Basic materials for maintaining life Air 49-54 Water 55-68 Food 69-71 Other biomolecules of life 72-76 Unit 4 Energy in the Community Electricity 77-78 Heat 78-81 Light 82-91 Sound 92 Simple Machines 93-99 Unit 5 The Physical Environment Weather and Climate 100-113 Soils 114-128 Read MoreSience23554 Words   |  95 Pagesin conjunction with the phenomenon known as thegreenhouse effect. †¢ Energy from the sun drives the earth’s weather and climate, and heats the earth’s surface; †¢ In turn, the earth radiates energy back into space; †¢ Some atmospheric gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases) trap some of the outgoing energy, retaining heat somewhat like the glass panels of a greenhouse; †¢ These gases are therefore known as greenhouse gases; †¢ The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperatureRead More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words   |  1422 Pageswife, Sally, and my daughter, Anna C. O. ââ€"   To Carol, Allie, and Teri. J. D. ââ€"   About the Authors puter Teacher of the Year award in 1988 and received the Siemens Award for Advanced Placement in mathematics in 1999. Chris is a frequent contributor to the AP Statistics Electronic Discussion Group and has reviewed materials for The Mathematics Teacher, the AP Central web site, The American Statistician, and the Journal of the American Statistical Association. He currently writes a column for

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Gender Issues in William Shakespeares Macbeth Essay

Gender Issues in William Shakespeares Macbeth In Macbeth there are some issues that show us that at the time William Shakespeare wrote, women were treated in a much inferior way than men. For brave Macbeth- well he deserves that name- disdaining fortune, with his brandish steel, which smoked bloody execution (I.2.16) This quote proves that men are seen as more important than women. Its taken from the start of the play, said by the captain at the battle. The captain is talking about Macbeth and he points out that Macbeth is brave, strong, and not afraid to fight. These are just some of the characteristics men were supposed to posses in the times of William Shakespeare. So well they†¦show more content†¦Macbeth tells his wife he will not do the job because of all the praise Duncan has given him recently, and thus can not kill him. He hath honoured me of late (I.7.31) But Macbeth ends up having to commit the crime in order to prove his masculinity to his wife. The morning after the murder, we see Macbeth is very nervous, on edge and he has a very guilty conscience. We can see his nerves in the way he speaks, with short sharp sentences. Twas a rough night ==================== Macbeth regrets the murder and nearly admits to his crime, but Lady Macbeth pretends to faint to create a diversion from Macbeth to herself. This idea that society depicted is no place for traditional female values is something we can develop by looking at Lady Macbeth. We can see through the play that Lady Macbeth changes personality; she goes from being the dominant male character of the marriage at the beginning of the play to being the female of the marriage where she should have always of been. Lady Macbeth has power at the beginning of the play over Macbeth and she uses this power to her advantage. After receiving a letter from her husband, Lady Macbeth is willing to do anything to help her husband become king. Lady Macbeth calls upon spirits to aid her in her plan to murder Duncan. She asks to be rid of all her feminine features. AlthoughShow MoreRelatedPsychoanalytic Ideas And Shakespeare By Inge Wise And Maggie Mills1420 Words   |  6 Pagesdescriptions by numerous authors who wrote on the writing works of Shakespeare, Freud’s work on the psychological works on Shakespeare in general are used throughout the book . The authors focus on psychopathic fiction characters in six plays Hamlet, Macbeth, twilight nights, King Lear, and the Tempest. The book when you read the reviews and the induction of the book is very misleading, the book should be called interpretations of other authors who have a written on the psychoanalytic some of ShakespeareRead MoreCompare And Contrast Rupert Goold And Macbeth Essay1225 Words   |  5 Pagescomparing one of the greatest literatures of all time produced by William Shakespeare. Macbeth, was first performed in 1606. This play details a Scottish general named Macbeth who receives a prediction from a trio of witches that believes in the future he will become the k ing of Scotland. Disbursed by political ambition and urged to action by his wife, Grouch, Macbeth murders king Duncan and takes over the throne himself. Yet, in return Macbeth then suffers from liability and paranoia. Copious amounts ofRead MoreCanterbury Tales Character Analysis997 Words   |  4 Pagesto the forms of power that patriarchy denies to women, establishing her character as an authoritative female through the authentication of English as a literary language. In the dissertation â€Å"Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales: Rhetoric and Gender in Marriage,† Andrea Marcotte analyzes Chaucer’s usage of ethos to grant the Wife authority in her male-dominated culture. Marcotte argues that the Wife reflects on her experiences in marriage throughout the general prologue to establish her knowledgeRead MoreAllegorical Elements In Macbeth Essay761 Words   |  4 PagesThe use of allegorical devices within Macbeth can also be used as a way of discussing internal political and ethical perspectives. Shakespeare condemns equivocation within the narrative, â€Å"Faith here’s an equivocator that could swear in both the scales against either scale who committed treason enough for Gods sake, yet could not equivocate to heaven† . This is probably in reference to the Jesuit, Henry Garnet a man who was tried and executed for his role in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. Garnet publishedRead MorePortrayal Of Women During The Elizabethan Period1656 Words   |  7 Pagesfemale characters in Macbeth by William Shakespeare, the Elizabethan period had a lack of respect for women, but Shakespeare changed it by having powerful, strong and independent female characters, like Lady Macbeth. Throughout history, women have not had the same amount of right and respect as the men. â€Å"Women were regarded as ‘the weaker sex’, not just in terms of physical strength, but emotionally too† (Sharnette). According to Shakespeare’s World/Stage, â€Å"During the time of William Shakespeare, theRead MoreEssay about Gender Roles in Macbeth1453 Words   |  6 PagesGender Roles in Macbeth  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Although written long ago, Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of Macbeth still has themes relevant for contemporary society.   Murderous ambition, political intrigue, crafty social alliances, the disintegration of marriage – these could be headlines from any daily news program.   It comes as no surprise, then, that we also find a significant number of moments in the play where gender seems to be an issue. More specifically, we might say that Shakespeares dramatic investigationRead MoreSexism In Macbeth1547 Words   |  7 PagesSexism in Macbeth Throughout history women have been viewed as the â€Å"weaker sex† and are constantly being denied their rights. Women have always been told that they are physically and intelligently inferior to men. In Greek mythology, Pandora, a woman, opens the forbidden box that brings plagues and unhappiness to mankind. When analyzing Greek and Roman tales women are almost always the leading source of evil and temptation. Not to long ago, a woman’s job was to strictly stay home with her childrenRead MoreIn History It Is Often Taught That Even Events That Occurred1499 Words   |  6 Pagesrelevance to our everyday lives. William Shakespeare was born in 1564 and came to be a famous poet, playwright, and actor. Along with the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, he established the Global Theatre on the outskirts of London. First performed in 1606, Shakespeare’s play Macbeth tells the story of a Scottish man named Macbeth who is in a constant struggle in wishing to obtain power b ut consequences that could potentially follow. Through violence and a push from his wife, Macbeth makes it to power before facingRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare’S Macbeth Remains As A Crucial Play1705 Words   |  7 PagesWilliam Shakespeare’s Macbeth remains as a crucial play in understanding the central concepts that shape modern Western civilization. The novel dramatizes the mental and physical impacts of those pursuing political power. For centuries, medieval and Renaissance civilizations were assured of a harmony between political and religious ideals. Audiences during Shakespeare’s time were familiar with kingdoms that incorporated religious aspects into their political systems. In Scotland and England, theRead MoreEssay on A Feminist Perspective of William Shakespeare1506 Words   |  7 PagesFeminist Perspective of Shakespeare   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Although William Shakespeare reflects and at times supports the English Renaissance stereotypes of women and men and their various roles and responsibilities in society, he is also a writer who questions, challenges, and modifies those representations. His stories afford opportunities not only to understand Renaissance culture better but also to confront our own contemporary generalizations about gender, especially what it means to be female. In his own time

Gay Marriage Should Be Legal Essay - 613 Words

Would legalization of gay marriage be good for the gay community? Sam Isaacson wrote an article analyzing the opinion of the gay community on legalizing same sex marriages. It is somewhat of a controversial issue with the gay community whether or not marriage is a good thing. He divides the community into two groups: integrationists and liberationists. The controversy is caused because of these two different philosophical views. The integrationists want to be as normal as can be. They want to integrate themselves into society. On the other hand, the liberationists cherish their gay culture with their own customs and values. The integrationists want gay marriage and the liberationists object to same sex marriage. Isaacsons†¦show more content†¦and thereby further confine both straights and gays.? Liberationists do not want to lose the unique characteristics of gay culture. Some gay writers have said, ?Gays have been forced to create different forms of relationships that often allow for a greater and often more fulfilling range of life experiences.? Gays are more likely to stay friends with their ex-girlfriends/boyfriends and they form very close relationships without becoming romantically involved. The communication in their relationships is better than most straight couples. The liberationists think that marriage ?limits and normalizes personal freedom. They do not want to be faced with the social pressures of marriage and their culture is forgotten. Isaacson agrees with the liberationists but many benefits would come about from the legalization of gay marriage. Marriage is stability that is good for a society. Children need a stable environment so that they are well adjusted. Couples tend to be happy in long-term relationships. Isaacson adds that when a person gets old, ill, or depressed it is nice to have someone who will take care of them so they are not alone. Furthermore, Isaacson does not want to forget the real benefits that come with marriage. For example, legal rights, tax benefits, insurance benefits, inheritance, and voice in medical treatment or funeral arrangements. He feels that gay love is not respected. Society does not care whether gays have relationships orShow MoreRelatedGay Marriage Should Be Legal1205 Words   |  5 PagesHoward Sociology 1301-93431 Gay Marriage Getting married is something that most people do when they find love, which it is an important event in their life. The GLBT (gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender) community now get the legal right of same-sex marriage, which they have fought for throughout the years; on the other hand, some opponents of same-sex marriage have called for a constitutional change towards it. Although there were some countries that allowed gay marriage before the United StatesRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1159 Words   |  5 PagesAmendment, which puts a ban on gay marriage. This amendment entitles to equal rights to the gay community, ending toleration of di scrimination in jobs, rights protecting gays from hate crimes,rights allowing advancement in government. However, the concept of gay marriage is still not considered a right the American people should extend to homosexuals. II. The vast majority of opponents believe marriage should be between one woman and one man, meaning marriage should be between members of the oppositeRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1574 Words   |  7 Pagesequal rights. Gays and lesbians are consistently denied rights that are typically taken for granted by the average American. Specifically, gay and lesbian couples are denied the right to marry even if they are outstanding citizens. They are held at an unfair disadvantage solely because of their sexual orientation. This discrimination must stop, because gay and lesbian couples are law-abiding citizens too, who should be afforded the same rights as heterosexual couples. Marriage is about love andRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1564 Words   |  7 PagesWhat is marriage? Recently, people argue with respect to the definition of marriage. What happened to marriage? To get married is a very important event for almost everyone. Especially for women, marriage and giv ing a birth could be the two biggest events of their lives. Many people believe that getting married to the one whom he or she loves is natural. However, what do you think if you cannot get married to him or her because it is socially unacceptable? 100 years ago different colored peopleRead MoreShould Gay Marriage Be Legal?778 Words   |  3 PagesShould Gay Marriage Be Legal? â€Å"†¦I now pronounce you husband and wife†¦Ã¢â‚¬  One would normally hear this when attending a wedding. In tradition marriage has been between one male and one female who love each other. But how would one feel if they heard â€Å"I now pronounce you groom and groom† or how about â€Å"†¦bride and bride...†? In the last 50 years the number of same-sex couples has increased. The on-going argument between the government and the people is â€Å"Should gay marriage be legal?† Although some sayRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1126 Words   |  5 PagesJune 26, 2015 for gay marriage to be legal in all fifty states, thirty seven out of the fifty and Washington D.C already legalized gay marriage. Many support gay marriage and many do not, with widespread values and reasons for and against it. Due to religion and rights people across the nation have differing views and opinions of it.In a five to four vote in the Supreme Court gay marriage becam e legalized in all fifty states. Shortly after that a few marriage officiators and marriage licenses peopleRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1179 Words   |  5 PagesGAY MARRIAGES Some states such as Iowa legalized gay marriage through the action of judicial interpretation based on the state’s constitutional stipulations while other states such as Vermont legalized gay marriage through legislation initiatives. These cases demonstrate the government is the sole body that can dictate the validity of whatever is to be regarded as a marriage, and in this case gay marriage. The power to validate marriage is still observed among the private citizens, religious institutionsRead MoreThe Gay Marriage Should Be Legal947 Words   |  4 PagesDefending Gay Marriage During the last few years, homosexuality has become an important issue for debate. Moreover, homosexuals have taken their case further by claiming their right to marry. Same-sex marriage, usually known as â€Å"gay marriage†, is the marriage between two people from the same biological sex (Doskow1). Since 2000, eleven countries have approved the legalization of gay marriage worldwide: Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Canada, South Africa, Norway, Sweden, Portugal, Iceland, ArgentinaRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1480 Words   |  6 PagesNew World Dictionary defines the word married as being husband and wife, yet there are millions of gay activists who are fighting for a new meaning. They believe marriage is more than a piece of paper and a set of rings. The hope is that marriage could be defined as a â€Å"public recognition of a private commitment† or â€Å"emotional, financial, and psychological bond† between two people (Sullivan 53). Gay activists belie ve that taking away the ability to have a publicly recognized relationship or an acceptedRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1351 Words   |  6 Pageshappened for United States, gay marriage became legal in all 50 states. In most states it already was but the remaining 13 became legal this year. There are many concerns regarding gay marriage, and the effects of them involve many legislative, cultural, religious and family issues. Gay marriage is controversial because a lot of people do not approve of it, they think it is immoral, unnatural, and not what the traditional concept of â€Å"marriage† really means. Opponents of gay marriage say it is only meant

Monster Energy Drink - Marketing Strategy And Recommendation

Question: Explain about the monster energy drink. Answer: Introduction The beverage industry has been experiencing rapid growth in the business, in recent years. In the beverage industry, Monster energy drink is one of the most famous drinks. In April 2002, Hansen Natural Corp. (HANS) introduced the Monster energy drink. The mission of the company is to satisfy the needs of the company for superior quality. The mission of the company is to empower the customers for improving performance. In order to assist further augmentation the organization sustain customers trust (Monster Energy, 2016) Overview Internal (micro) Analysis The organization targeted mainly the young urban male and females. The income of the customers varies but they generally is on the middle range. The individuals apply for courageous and energizing way of life. Red bull is the primary threat for the brand and they mainly hold half of the market share (Tsarouhas, 2013). Hence, it can be identified that Monster energy has been growing its business.The main objective of the company is to satisfy the needs of the company. the motto which is utilized as a part of the battle for red bull is spreading for making brand familiarity with the item. External Analysis According to PESTEL analysis, the organization have safe, stable, least corrupted and business friendly environment. The analysis suggests that the organization have increased employment rate. The monster energy drink provides slow deflation and outlook growth. Local sponsorship is provided by the organization in major sports as per PESTEL (Chen, 2012). A survey was conducted by the organization in local preference. Advertisement was done on social media and mass media platforms. The order to understand the taste and monster energy drink collaborates with major supermarkets for recycle programs. PESTEL suggests strict rules and regulation. SWOT The monster energy drink provides reasonable price for bigger can of drinks. It has well known brands in as well as endorsement with number of celebrity. The organization creates more awareness by advertising on social media. The organization creates more innovative ideas. Brand awareness is low in Singapore, which is one of the most important weakness of the organization. The organization is facing stiff competition with other competitors. Health concern is one of the most important issues. Marketing strategy and recommendation The market of the organization focuses on consumer needs, their priorities and designing of the product. Demographic research inspects age, religion, gender, occupation etc. researchers have scrutinized market and they have reported that energy enhance performance level. Socio-economic strategy is important for assessing the potentiality of the customers. It is concluded that the organization promotes their market value through sports and adventures. Marketing Mix and Recommendation The Monster energy drinks are offered in different varieties and flavours. The monster zero ultra was initiated with less sweet and zero calories. They make their product unique from other brands in the market (Sacks et al., 2015). On the monster energy drink always provide affordable pricing policy for its customers and it became one of the most important reason behind the companys position in the market. The main aim of the company is to find the consumers at the right time at the right place in the right situation. The entry strategy of the company is based on exclusivity. Monster drink sometimes attracts its customers by offering free drinks. In my opinion, the company must extend or change its marketing strategy in order to compete with other energy brands. References Chen, L. F. (2012). A novel approach to regression analysis for the classification of quality attributes in the Kano model: an empirical test in the food and beverage industry.Omega,40(5), 651-659. Monster Energy. (2016).Monsterenergy.com. Retrieved 6 June 2016, Sacks, G., Mialon, M., Vandevijvere, S., Trevena, H., Snowdon, W., Crino, M., Swinburn, B. (2015). Comparison of food industry policies and commitments on marketing to children and product (re) formulation in Australia, New Zealand and Fiji.Critical Public Health,25(3), 299-319. Tsarouhas, P. H. (2013). Evaluation of overall equipment effectiveness in the beverage industry: a case study.International Journal of Production Research,51(2), 515-523.